All living organisms and non-living constituents of an area together form an ecosystem.

For example - In a garden, we have plants and trees. We also have animals there, like dogs, cats, frogs, birds, and insects. All these living organisms live in a particular temperature, plants are formed from the soil. Rainfall and wind also affects the living organisms. So, these non-living constituents like Temperature , Soil, Rainfall, Wind.


All of these living and non-living things constitute an ecosystem of the garden. 


Types of Ecosystem

Ecosystem can be of two types

  • Natural Ecosystems - Ecosystem can be on land, or on Water. 
    • Land ecosystems include Forests, Grasslands, Desert Ecosystem. 
    • Aquatic ecosystems include Ocean and Lake Ecosystem
  • Artificial Ecosystems - These Ecosystems are made by human beings. Example - Garden, Crop-fields, Aquarium


Function of Ecosystem

The function of ecosystem is to keep all its living and non-living components running in a balance.

So, we can say that the functions of the ecosystem are:


  • Ecosystem maintains balance among Producers, Consumers and Decomposers
  • It provides an environment for producers to trap sun’s energy and provide food.
  • It is responsible for the cycling of nutrients between biotic and abiotic components.
  • The Ecosystem supports life through bio-geochemical cycles and other biospheric processes. (Example - Cleaning the air, adding nutrients to the soil)

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Maninder Singh

CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 13 years and a teacher from the past 17 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo