Explain the underlying principle and working of an electric generator by drawing a labelled diagram. What is the function of brushes?

 

Answer

An Electric Generator looks like

Electric Generator - Teachoo.svg

Principle of Electrical generator

The electrical generator works on the principle that

when a straight conductor is moved in a magnetic field,

then current is induced in the conductor.

 

 

Working of Electric Generator

 

Let's look at the working of an Electric Generator

  • Suppose axle is rotated clockwise, so coil is also rotated clockwise,
    Side AB of Coil moves up and side CD Moves down
    Applying Fleming's Right Hand Rule on side AB,
    force is upwards, magnetic field is left to right,
    So, current flows into the paper i.e. from A to B  

  • And applying  Fleming's Right Hand Rule on side CD,
    force is downwards, magnetic field is left to right,
    So, current flows out of the paper i.e. from C to D  

  • Hence, current flows into the Brush B 2 , moves along galvanometer and finally enters B 1
    Hence, we say current flows from B 2 to B 1 in the external circuit.

  • After half a rotation,
    Side CD Comes on left side and AB Comes on Right Side

  • Now, on left side CD comes down,
    Applying Fleming's Right Hand Rule on side CD,
    force is downwards, magnetic field is left to right,
    So, current flows out of the paper i.e. from D to C  

  • And on right side, AB comes up, 
    Applying Fleming's Right Hand Rule on side AB,
    force is upwards, magnetic field is left to right,
    So, current flows into the paper i.e. from A to B

  • Hence, our circuit is now  DCBA,
    and current moves in the opposite direction Electric Generator - Direction Reverses - Teachoo.png
  • Hence, we say current flows from B 1 to B 2 in the external circuit.
  • Thus, after every half rotation, direction of current changes. 
    Hence, Alternating Current is produced

 

 

Function of brushes

The function of brushes is that the brushes conduct current between stationary wires and moving parts of the electric generator.

  1. Class 10
  2. Chapter 13 Class 10 - Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

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Davneet Singh
Davneet Singh is a graduate from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 9 years. He provides courses for Maths and Science at Teachoo.