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Archaeological sources

The things that were made or used by the people in the past and have survived till today, such as buildings, coins, inscriptions, paintings, etc.

Temples, palaces, mosques, forts, tombs, coins, inscriptions, utensils, tools, paintings and ornaments


The writings of the rulers about their own life and experiences

Baburnama by Babur, Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi by Firoz Shah Tughluq, Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri by emperor Jahangir


The writings of other people about the life and achievements of the rulers

Akbarnama by Abul Fazl, Humayunnama by Gulbadan Begum, Padshahnama by Abdul Hamid Lahori


The records of the rule of the kings and life at the court

Tarikh-i-Firozshahi by Zia-ud-din Barani, Tarikh-i-Ferishta by Ferishta, Khazainul-futuh and Tughluqnama by Amir Khusrau, Rajatarangini by Kalhana, Prithviraj-raso by Chandbardai

Holy texts

The writings that tell us about the beliefs, rituals and practices of different religions

Quran, Vedas, Bible, etc.

Judicial records

The writings that tell us about the complaints, disputes and cases of the people and how they were resolved

Farmans, shariat, etc.

Literary sources

The written records of the medieval period that tell us about the history, culture, society and religion of the period

Chronicles, autobiographies, biographies and travelogues


The writings that tell us about the requests or appeals made by the people to the rulers or authorities

For justice, relief, protection, etc.

Registers of accounts and taxes

The writings that tell us about the economy, trade, administration and revenue system of the period

Ain-i-Akbari by Abul Fazl


The writings of the foreign travellers who visited India during the medieval period. They tell us about their observations and impressions of India

Rihla by Ibn Battuta, Safarnama by Abdur Razzaq, Travels in India by Bernier

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.