Drought prone region  - Teachoo.png

  • The moment we speak of water shortages , we immediately associate it with regions having low rainfall or those that are drought prone .
  • We visualise the deserts of Rajasthan and women balancing many ‘matkas’ (earthen pots ) used for collecting and storing water and traveling long distances to get water.
  • The availability of water resources varies over space and time , mainly due to the variations in seasonal and annual precipitation .

Causes of Water Scarcity 

  • Water scarcity in most cases is caused by over-exploitation , excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.
  • Water scarcity may be an outcome of a large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water , and unequal access to it.
  • A large population requires more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food.
  • To facilitate higher food-grain production, water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas for dry-season agriculture.
  • Irrigated agriculture is the largest consumer of water.

Irrigated Agriculture - Teachoo.png


  • It is needed to revolutionise agriculture through developing drought resistant crops and dry farming techniques
  • Post-independent India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation , creating vast opportunities.
  • Large industrial houses are as commonplace as the industrial units of many MNCs (Multinational Corporations ).
  • The ever- increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources .
  • Industries apart from being heavy users of water , also require power to run them.
  • Much of this energy comes from hydroelectric power.
  • In India hydroelectric power contributes approximately 22 percent of the total electricity produced.
  • Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further aggravated the problem .
  • The housing societies or colonies in the cities, you would find that most of these houses have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their water needs.
  • Fragile water resources are being over-exploited and have caused their depletion in several of these cities.  
  • Lately, there has been growing concern that even if there is ample water to meet the needs of the people , much of it may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes , chemicals , pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture .
  • Making it hazardous for human use .


Jal Jeevan Mission

Jal Jeevan Mission - Teachoo.png

  • Government of India has accorded highest priority to improve the quality of life and enhance ease of living of people especially those living in rural areas by announcing the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM).
  • The Goal of JJM is to enable every rural household to get assured supply of potable piped water at a service level of 55 litres per capita per day regularly on long-term basis by ensuring functionality of the tap water connections.

Water Pollution - Serious Concern 

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  • India’s rivers , especially the smaller ones , have all turned into toxic streams .
  • Even the big ones like the Ganga and Yamuna are far from being pure .
  • The assault on India’s rivers - from population growth , agricultural modernisation , urbanisation and industrialisation - is enormous and growing by the day.
  • This entire life stands threatened .
  • The need of the hour is to conserve and manage our water resources , safeguard ourselves from health hazards , to ensure food security , continuation of our livelihoods and productive activities and also to prevent degradation of our natural ecosystems .
  • Over exploitation and mismanagement of water resources will impoverish this resource and cause ecological crisis that may have profound impact on our lives .
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Davneet Singh's photo - Co-founder, Teachoo

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.