Living organisms need food:

  • Food gives energy to the living organisms to grow and carry out various life processes.
  • Plants are able to make their own food by the process of photosynthesis whereas animals are dependent on plants and other animals for their food.


Living organisms grow:

  • We all grow, become adults from children and also grow in size.
  • Body cells divide and grow and thus overall growth is attained.
  • When living things grow, they become taller and bigger on their own. 
  • A seed grows and becomes a plant .
  • A chick hatched from egg grow into a hen or cock.


Living organisms respire:

  • Taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide is known as breathing and utilizing this oxygen by the body is known as respiration.


  • Respiration is necessary for all living organisms . It is through respiration that the body finally obtains energy from the food it takes.
  • Different organisms have different mechanisms for respiration e.g. we have lungs ,
  • Earthworms breathe through their skin and fishes have gills .


Plants also respire:


Organisms respond to stimuli:

  • Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them are known as Stimuli.
  • Different organisms respond differently to stimuli.

In Humans:

When we suddenly move from a dark place to bright light our eyes shut automatically till they adjust to the surroundings.


In Animals:

  • Wild animals run away when bright light is flashed on them.
  • Cockroaches begin to hide when light is switched on at night.
  • Birds fly away when we go closer to them.


In Plants:

Plants like Mimosa commonly known as Touch-me-not leaves for these plants close or fold when someone touches them.


Living organisms excrete:

  • The process of getting rid of wastes by organisms is known as excretion.
  • Excretion is a common characteristic in all living organisms.
  • All organisms need food but not all the food that is eaten is completely used by our body. Thus, the food which is not utilized is removed from our body as wastes.
  • The process of excretion is little different in animals.
  • Some plants store the waste products within their parts while others remove waste products as secretion.


Living organisms reproduce:

  • Reproduction is the process of giving rise to organisms which are similar to the parent.
  • Animals reproduce their own kind.
  • Mode of reproduction may be different in different animals.


Reproduction in plants and animals

  • Some animals lay egg like Hen.
  • Some give birth to the young ones like Dog and Cat.
  • Plants also reproduce and the mode of reproduction also differs in Plants.
  • Many plants reproduce through seeds which grows into a new plant.
  • Some plants reproduce through other parts and not through seeds like part of potato with a bud grows into a new plant.
  • They also reproduce through cuttings of their plant parts like Rose or Mehndi plant

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Maninder Singh

CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 13 years and a teacher from the past 17 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo