Have you ever seen
Or
These are Roman Numerals
Like we write
1, 2, 3, 4, ………
Romans write like
I, II, III, IV, ……..
These are called Roman Numbers.
Here is another example of using Roman numerals in a clock
Most common roman numerals
All other roman numerals are made from this
Rules for Forming Roman Numbers
Let's keep our table here for reference
Numbers |
Roman Numbers |
1 |
I |
5 |
V |
10 |
X |
50 |
L |
100 |
C |
500 |
D |
1000 |
M |
Rule 1
If symbol is repeated, it’s value is added
Example
II = I + I = 1 + 1 = 2
XXX = X + X + X = 10 + 10 + 10 = 30
Rule 2
No symbol is repeated more than 3 times
III is allowed
IIII is not allowed
Note : V, L, D are never repeated.
Rule 3
If smaller value symbol is written to right of greater value symbol, its value gets added .
VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6
XII = X + I + I = 10 + 1 + 1 = 12
LXV = L + X + V = 50 + 10 + 5 = 65
Rule 4
If the symbol of smaller value is written to the left of greater value, its value gets subtracted
IV = V − I = 5 − 1 = 4
IX = X − I = 10 − 1 = 9
XL = L − X = 50 − 10 = 40
XC = C − X = 100 − 10 = 90
Let's take some examples
Lets take some examples
Write 16 as roman numeral
16 = 10 + 5 + 1
= X + V + I
= XVI
Write 26 as roman numeral
20 = 20 + 6
= 10 + 10 + 6
= 10 + 10 + 5 + 1
= X + X + V + I
= XXVI
Write 34 as roman numeral
34 = 30 + 4
= 10 + 10 + 10 + 4
= 10 + 10 + 10 + (5 - 1)
= X + X + X + (V - I)
= X + X + X + IV
= XXXIV
Write 59 as roman numeral
50 = 50 + 9
= 50 + (10 – 1)
= L + (X – I)
= L + IX
= LIX
Write 183 as roman numeral
183 = 100 + 50 + 33
= 100 + 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 3
= C + L + X + X + X + III
= CLXXXIII
Write 556 as roman numeral
556 = 500 + 50 + 6
= 500 + 50 + (5 + 1)
= D + L + V + I
= DLVI
Write 1589 as roman numeral
1589 = 1000 + 500 + 50 + 30 + 9
= 1000 + 500 + 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 + (10 – 1)
= M + D + L + X + X + X + (X – I)
= M + D + L + X + X + X + IX
= MDLXXXIX
Roman Numbers from 1 to 10
Roman Numbers from 1 to 20
Roman numbers from 1 to 100
Roman Numerals for Big Numbers
You can also download the PDF here