Have you ever seen

Roman Numerals - Roman numerals

Or

Roman numerals - Hercules MCMXCVII.jpg

These are Roman Numerals

Like we write

1, 2, 3, 4, ………

 

Romans write like

I, II, III, IV, ……..

 

These are called Roman Numbers.


Here is another example of using Roman numerals in a clock

Roman numerals - Clock.jpg


Most common roman numerals

Most Common Roman Numerals.jpg

All other roman numerals are  made from this

 


Rules for Forming Roman Numbers

Let's keep our table here for reference 

Numbers

Roman Numbers

1

I

5

V

10

X

50

L

100

C

500

D

1000

M

 

Rule 1

If symbol is repeated, it’s value is added

Example

  II = I + I = 1 + 1 = 2

  XXX = X + X + X = 10 + 10 + 10 = 30

 

Rule 2

No symbol is repeated more than 3 times

  III is allowed

  IIII is not allowed 

Note : V, L, D are never repeated.

Rule 3

If smaller value symbol is written to right of greater value symbol, its value gets added .

  VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6

  XII = X + I + I = 10 + 1 + 1 = 12

  LXV = L + X + V = 50 + 10 + 5 = 65

 

Rule 4

If the symbol of smaller value is written to the   left of greater value, its value gets subtracted

  IV = V − I = 5 − 1 = 4

  IX = X − I = 10 − 1 = 9

  XL = L − X = 50 − 10 = 40

  XC = C − X = 100 − 10 = 90

 

Let's take some examples


Lets take some examples

 

Write 16 as roman numeral

  16 = 10 + 5 + 1

        = X + V + I

        = XVI

 

Write 26 as roman numeral

  20 = 20 + 6

        = 10 + 10 + 6

        = 10 + 10 + 5 + 1

        = X + X + V + I

        = XXVI

 

Write 34 as roman numeral

  34 = 30 + 4

        = 10 + 10 + 10 + 4

        = 10 + 10 + 10 + (5 - 1)

        = X + X + X + (V - I)

        = X + X + X + IV

        = XXXIV

 

Write 59 as roman numeral

  50 = 50 + 9

        = 50 + (10 – 1)

        = L + (X – I)

        = L + IX

        = LIX

 

Write 183 as roman numeral

  183 = 100 + 50 + 33

         = 100 + 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 3

         = C + L + X + X + X + III

         = CLXXXIII

 

Write 556 as roman numeral

  556 = 500 + 50 + 6

         = 500 + 50 + (5 + 1)

         = D + L + V + I

         = DLVI

 

Write 1589 as roman numeral

  1589 = 1000 + 500 + 50 + 30 + 9

 

   = 1000 + 500 + 50 + 10  + 10  + 10 + (10 – 1)

   = M + D + L + X + X + X + (X – I)

   = M + D + L + X + X + X + IX

           = MDLXXXIX

Roman Numbers from 1 to 10

Roman Numbers from 1 to 10.jpg


Roman Numbers from 1 to 20 Roman Numbers from 1 to 20.jpg


Roman numbers from 1 to 100

Roman numbers from 1 to 100.jpg


Roman Numerals for Big Numbers

Roman Numerals for Big Numbers.jpg

You can also download the PDF here 

 

  1. Chapter 1 Class 6 Knowing our Numbers
  2. Concept wise

About the Author

Davneet Singh's photo - Teacher, Computer Engineer, Marketer
Davneet Singh
Davneet Singh is a graduate from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 8 years. He provides courses for Maths and Science at Teachoo. You can check his NCERT Solutions from Class 6 to 12.