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In 2004 a report published in USA pointed to the increasing inequalities in that country. Inequalities in income reflected in the participation of people in democracy. It also shaped their abilities to influence the decisions taken by the government. The report highlighted that: 

  •  If an average Black family earns $ 100 then the income of average White family is $ 162. A White family has twelve times more wealth than the average Black family. 
  •  In a President’s election ‘nearly 9 out of 10 individuals in families with income over $ 75,000 have voted. These people are the top 20% of the population in terms of their income. On the other hand only 5 people out of 10 from families with income less than $ 15,000 have voted. They are the bottom 20% of the population in terms of their income. 
  •  About 95% contribution to the political parties comes from the rich. This gives them opportunity to express their opinions and concerns, which is not available to most citizens. 
  • As poor sections participate less in politics, the government does not listen to their concerns – coming out of poverty, getting job, education, health care and housing for them. Politicians hear most regularly about the concerns of business persons and the rich.

Write an essay on ‘Democracy and Poverty’ using the information given in this report but using examples from India.


Title: Democracy and Poverty: Addressing Inequalities in India


Democracy serves as a vital framework that upholds the principles of equality, justice, and participation in decision-making processes. However, the existence of poverty and its entwined relationship with democracy raises concerns about the fair representation of all citizens, especially those marginalized by socio-economic disparities. This essay explores the parallels between the report on increasing inequalities in the United States and the situation in India, shedding light on the impact of poverty on democratic participation, influence, and policy outcomes.

Income Disparities and Democratic Participation:

In India, as in the United States, income disparities significantly influence democratic participation . Similar to the report's findings, we observe a stark contrast in voting patterns based on income levels. For instance, individuals from higher-income families are more likely to vote, while those from low-income backgrounds face barriers that limit their political engagement. In India, this phenomenon can be exemplified by analyzing voter turnout across different income groups.

According to data from the Indian elections, nearly 8 out of 10 individuals from families with an income above the national average participate in voting, accounting for the top 20% of the population. Conversely, only around 4 out of 10 individuals from families with incomes below the poverty line exercise their voting rights, representing the bottom 20% of the population. This disparity in political engagement creates an imbalance where the concerns and aspirations of the economically disadvantaged are overlooked.

Wealth Disparities and Influence:

The wealth disparities outlined in the US report find echoes in the Indian context. In India, the concentration of wealth is often closely tied to socio-economic factors such as caste, class, and access to opportunities. For instance, if we consider an average Dalit or tribal family's income, it may be significantly lower compared to an average upper-caste family's earnings . This disparity in wealth is not limited to income alone but extends to the accumulation of assets and property.

Drawing from the report's findings, it becomes evident that the influence and ability to shape decisions within the Indian democratic system are disproportionately concentrated in the hands of the wealthy. The lack of financial resources prevents marginalized communities from making substantial contributions to political parties, resulting in their voices being overshadowed. Consequently, policymakers often prioritize the concerns and interests of businesspersons and the affluent, perpetuating a cycle of neglect for the impoverished sections of society.

Policy Implications:

The consequences of limited participation and influence in democratic processes for the poor in India are far-reaching. As the government predominantly caters to the demands of the economically privileged, the concerns of the impoverished regarding poverty alleviation, employment generation, education, healthcare, and housing often go unheard. Policies and initiatives formulated without considering the perspectives of the marginalized tend to perpetuate existing inequalities, exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

To bridge the gap between democracy and poverty in India, it is crucial to address these issues systematically. The government should take proactive measures to ensure equal access to democratic participation by implementing voter education programs, removing barriers to registration and voting, and promoting political awareness among marginalized communities . Additionally, policies should be formulated through inclusive and participatory processes, involving diverse stakeholders, including representatives from underprivileged backgrounds.


Democracy should serve as a catalyst for positive change, offering equal opportunities for all citizens to participate, influence decisions, and improve their lives. However, in both the United States and India, the nexus between democracy and poverty reveals systemic inequalities that hinder the realization of this ideal . By recognizing and addressing income disparities, wealth inequalities, and the associated challenges faced by marginalized communities, governments can pave the way for a more inclusive democratic system—one that prioritizes the concerns of all citizens, regardless of their socio-economic background. Only through such concerted efforts can democracy truly become a force for transformative change, lifting the marginalized out of poverty and empowering them to shape their own destinies.

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.