Read the extract given below and answer any 5 out of 6 questions:

What was the role of technology in all this? The railways, steamships, the telegraph, for example, were important inventions without which we cannot imagine the transformed nineteenth century world. But technological advances were often the result of larger social, political and economic factors. For example, colonization stimulated new investments and improvements in transport faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from faraway farms to final markets. The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up a lot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence, an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. High prices in turn kept demand and production down until the development of a new technology, namely, refrigerated ships, which enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances. Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point – in America, Australia or New Zealand – and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living condition promoted social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.



Question (i)

Name any two inventions which transformed the 19th century world.


From the paragraph

What was the role of technology in all this? The r ailways, steamships, the telegraph, for example,  were important inventions without which we cannot imagine the transformed nineteenth-century world.


Railways, Steamships , and telegraphs were some of the inventions which transformed the 19th-century world.


Question (ii)

Name any two factors that contributed to the technological advancement.


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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 13 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.