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Factual Passage (with Past Year Questions)

English Class 12
Reading Comprehension

(1) Air pollution is a major threat to human health. The United Nations Environment Programme has estimated that, globally, 1.1 billion people breathe in unhealthy air. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that urban air pollution is responsible for approximately 800,000 deaths and 4.6 million people lose their lives every year around the globe.

(2)Traffic and transportation problems, inadequate drainage facilities, lack of open spaces, carbon emission, and the accumulation of waste aggravate the problem. Air pollution is associated with increased risk of Acute respiratory infections (ARI), the principal cause of infant and child mortality in developing countries.

(3)Urban air quality in most mega cities has been found to be critical and Kolkata is no exception to this. An analysis of ambient air quality in Kolkata was done by applying the Exceedance Factor (EF) method, where the presence of listed pollutants' (RPM, SPM, NO, and SO2) annual average concentration are classified into four different categories; namely critical, high, moderate, and low pollution. Out of a total of 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations operating in Kolkata, five fall under the critical category, and the remaining 12 locations fall under the high category of NO2 concentration, while for RPM, four record critical, and 13 come under the high pollution category. The causes of high concentration of pollutants in the form of NO, and RPM have been identified in earlier studies as vehicular emission (51.4%), followed by industrial sources (24.5%) and dust particles (21.1%).

(4)Later, a health assessment was undertaken with a structured questionnaire at some nearby dispensaries which fall under areas with different ambient air pollution levels. Three dispensaries have been surveyed with 100 participants. It shows that respondents with respiratory diseases (85.1%) have outnumbered waterborne diseases (14.9%) and include acute respiratory infections. (ARI) (60%), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (7.8%), upper tract respiratory infection (UTRD) (1.2%), Influenza (12.7%), and acid-fast bacillus (AFB) (3.4%).

5.To live a healthy life and have better well-being, practising pollution averting activities in one's day-to-day activities is needed. These pollution averting practices can only be possible when awareness among the masses is generated that the air they breathe outdoors is not found to be safe.

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Question 2 ( i )

Select the option that highlights the main idea of the passage.

(a) To educate people about the threat of air pollution

(b) To warn people of the threat of air pollution and educate them about the safety measures.

(c) To discuss the status of pollution in Kolkata and share the details of the study.

(d) To educate people on the Exceedance Factor method and share the results of the study.

Answer

(A) To educate people about the threat of air pollution - This is correct

( B) To warn people of the threat of air pollution and educate them about safety measures - This is not correct

(C) To discuss the status of pollution in Kolkata and share the details of the study - This is not correct

(D) To educate people on Exceedance Factor method and share the results of the study - This is not correct

 

So, the correct answer is option (A)

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Question 2 ( ii)

Select the option that displays the correct 'cause and effect' relationship.

(a) Cause: Effect

Traffic and transportation problem: 4.6 million deaths

(b) Cause: Effect

Lack of open spaces: Mega cities

(c)  Cause: Effect

Air pollution: Respiratory diseases

(d)  Cause: Effect

Answer

(A) Cause - Traffic and transportation problems ; Effect - 4.6 million deaths - This is correct

(B) Cause - Lack of open spaces ; Effect - Mega Cities

( C) Cause - Air Pollution ; Effect - Respiratory diseases

(D) Cause - Air quality monitoring stations ; Effect - Emission of NO2

 

So, the correct answer is option (A)

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Question 2 ( iii)

Read the following statements :

(i) Air pollution kills 4.6 million people every year in India.

(ii) Air pollution is causing health hazards to more people than

water pollution.

(a) (i) is true and (ii) is false.

(b) (i) is false and (ii) is true.

(c) (i) is true and is responsible for (ii).

(d) Both (i) and (ii) are false.

Answer

(A) ( i ) is true and (ii) is false - This is correct

(B) ( i ) is false and (ii) is true - This is not correct

( C) ( i ) is true and responsible for (ii) - This is not correct

  (D) Both ( i ) and (ii) are false - This is not correct

 

So, the correct answer is option (A)

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Question 2 ( iv)

The author's opinion on the development of Mega cities is

(a) Cities face transportation problems due to heavy traffic.

(b) Urbanization leads to deterioration of air quality.

(c) Mega cities are the right spots to study air pollution.

(d) Sitios face the problem of congestion.

Answer

(A) Cities face transportation problem due to heavy traffic - This is not correct

(B) Urbanisation leads to deterioration in air quality - This is correct

( C) Mega cities are the right spot to study air pollution - This is not correct

(D) Cities face the problem of congestion - This is not correct

 

So, the correct answer is option (B)

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Question 2 (v)

Select the option that lists the author's recommendation to the people.

1. He wants people to be aware that air pollution is a major threat.

2. He urges people not to live in mega cities.

3. He advises people to follow pollution averting activities seriously

4. He wants people to reduce vehicular emissions.

(a) i & ii  (b) ii & iii

(c) i & iii  (d) iii & iv

Answer

(A) ( i ) and (ii) - This is not correct

(B) (ii) and (iii) - This is not correct

(C) ( i ) and (iii) - This is not correct

(D) (iii) and (iv) - This is correct

 

So, the correct answer is option (D)

 

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Question 2 (vi)

Select the option that displays the true statement as per fig. 1.

(a) Dust and power plants are the causes for maximum pollution

(b) Pollution caused by transport is much more than the pollution caused by industries.

(c) The use of diesel generator is responsible for more than 50% of air pollution

(d) Dust stands fourth in the list that causes air pollution.

Answer

(A) Dusts and power plants are the causes of maximum pollution - This is not correct

( B) Pollution caused by transports is much more than pollution caused by industries - This is correct

(C) The use of diesel generator is responsible for more than 50% of air pollution - This is not correct

(D) Dust stands fourth in the list that causes air pollution - This is not correct

 

So, the correct answer is option (B)

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