Check sibling questions

Draw the structure of a neuron and explain its function

 

Answer

STRUCTURE OF NERVE CELL NEURON - Teachoo.jpg

Part

Details

Dendrites

Branched structure that collects information from previous neuron and passes on to the cell body .

Cell body 

It is the broad, rounded  part of the neuron that contains the nucleu s, abundant cytoplasm ( neuroplasm ) and other organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body etc.

Axon

It is a long tube-like structure that carries information from the cell body to the nerve endings . Axon is covered by 1-2 sheaths called nerve fiber . A number of nerve fibers joined together to form a nerve

Nerve endings

The axon is branched terminally in muscle fibers, glands, other structures or forms synapse with the dendrites of other neurons.

Synapse

There is a gap between the nerve endings of one neuron and dendrite of the following neuron where signals are transmitted as chemical signals called neurotransmitters.

The nervous system is made up of neurons or nerve cells

  • These neurons help to transmit signals to and from different parts of the body
  • These signals are in both electric and chemical forms
  • Signals are in the form of electric impulses as they pass from dendrites to nerve endings.
  • Signals are in the form of chemicals called neurotransmitters during transmission of messages across the synapse.

The different types of neurons carry different types of signals:

  • Sensory neurons - Receptors in the sense organs to the brain
  • Motor neurons - Brain cells to the muscles that need to respond according to the signal sensed.
  • Interneurons - Between different neurons.

SIGNALS PASS THROUGH AND BETWEEN NEURONS - Teachoo.jpg

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CA Maninder Singh is a Chartered Accountant for the past 12 years and a teacher from the past 16 years. He teaches Science, Economics, Accounting and English at Teachoo