Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follows:

How do we count the various goods and services and know the total production in each sector? With so many thousands of goods and services produced, you might think this is an impossible task! Not only would the task be enormous, you might also wonder how we can add up cars and computers and nails and furniture. It won’t make sense!!!

You are right in thinking so. To get around this problem, economists suggest that the values of goods and services should be used rather than adding up the actual numbers. For example, if 10,000 kgs of wheat is sold at ` 8 per kg, the value of wheat will be ` 80,000. The value of 5000 coconuts at ` 10 per coconut will be ` 50,000. Similarly, the value of goods and services in the three sectors are calculated, and then added up.

Remember, there is one precaution one has to take. Not every good (or service) that is produced and sold needs to be counted. It makes sense only to include the final goods and services. Take, for instance, a farmer who sells wheat to a flour mill for ` 8 per kg. The mill grinds the wheat and sells the flour to a biscuit company for ` 10 per kg. The biscuit company uses the flour and things such as sugar and oil to make four packets of biscuits. It sells biscuits in the market to the consumers for ` 60 (` 15 per packet). Biscuits are the final goods, i.e., goods that reach the consumers.

Why are only ‘final goods and services’ counted? In contrast to final goods, goods such as wheat and the wheat flour in this example are intermediate goods. Intermediate goods are used up in producing final goods and services. The value of final goods already includes the value of all the intermediate goods that are used in making the final good. Hence, the value of Rs 60 for the biscuits (final good) already includes the value of flour (Rs 10). Similarly, the value of all other intermediate goods would have been included. To count the value of the flour and wheat separately is therefore not correct because then we would be counting the value of the same things a number of times. First as wheat, then as flour and finally as biscuits.

The value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of the sector for that year. And the sum of production in the three sectors gives what is called the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. It is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a particular year. GDP shows how big the economy is. In India, the mammoth task of measuring GDP is undertaken by a central government ministry. This Ministry, with the help of various government departments of all the Indian states and union territories, collects information relating to total volume of goods and services and their prices and then estimates the GDP.

 

Question (i)

What method does the economists suggest in counting the various goods and

 

Answer:

Economists recommend that the value of goods and services be used instead of adding up the actual numbers when calculating the various goods and services.

 

Question (ii)

What is Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P.)?

 

Answer:

From paragraph

The value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of the sector for that year. And the sum of production in the three sectors gives what is called the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)  of a country. It is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a  particular year. GDP shows how big the economy is. 

 

The value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a particular period in all three sectors gives what is called the Gross  Domestic Product ( GDP) of a country. 

Question (iii)

What is the role of Central Government Ministry in measuring GDP?

 

Answer:

From paragraph 

In India, the mammoth task of measuring GDP is undertaken by a central government ministry. This  Ministry, with the help of various government departments of all the Indian states and union territories, collects information relating to total volume of goods and services and their prices and then estimates the GDP. 

 

The role of the central Government in measuring the GDP of the country is that with the help of various government departments of all the Indian states and union territories, it collects information relating to the total volume of goods and services and their prices and then estimates the GDP.

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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.