Explain briefly the main causes of the rise of Nazi dictatorship in Germany.
Points to Remember
Answer to be written in Exam
Causes of the rise of the Nazi dictatorship in Germany are as follows:
1. First world war defeat
- Germany, a powerful empire in the early years of 20th century, fought the first world war (1914-1918) alongside the Austrian empire against the Allies ( England, France and Russia.)
- However, the Allies strengthened by US entry in 1917 won, defeating Germany and the Central Powers in November 1918.
2. Weakness of the Weimar Republic:
- The Weimar Constitution had flaws that made it unstable and vulnerable to dictatorship.
- Because of proportional representation, the one-party rule became impossible, resulting in coalition rule.
- Another flaw was Article 48, which gave the President the authority to declare a state of emergency, suspend civil rights, and rule by decree.
3. Treaty of Versailles:
- Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles with the Allied Powers .
- This made Germany lose its overseas colonies , 1/10 of its population , and 13 percent of its territories, and many other things.
- The Allied armies occupied the resource-rich Rhineland.
- The War Guilt Clause required Germany to pay the Allied Powers £ 6 billion in War Damages.
4. The Economic crisis:
- The German economy suffered the most. Industrial output has been reduced by 40%.
- Due to the Great Depression, the United States' national income fell by half, causing factories to shut down across the globe.
- Exports also decreased.
5. Mass unemployment:
- Workers in Germany lost their jobs and were paid less.
- Unemployed youth played cards or waited in line at a local job exchange.
- Jobs vanished, and young people indulged in criminal activity.
So, the German people believed Hitler would be a good dictator because he promised to undo the injustice of the Treaty of Versailles . He also promised to employ those who were looking for work. Later, with 37% of the vote in the Reichstag, the Nazi Party became the largest party.