History is generally divided into three time periods-

(a) Prehistory

(b) Proto-History

(c) History


hunter gatheres - Teachoo.png

  • The prehistoric period is the time when writing had not been invented. Hence, there are no written records of this period.
  • Our knowledge of prehistory is based entirely on archaeology.
  • To understand prehistory, archaeologists dig deep into the ground and dig out the remains of the past.
  • These physical remains such as pots, jewelry, tools, coins, bones , etc. help them to know about the past.
  • During this time, people didn't live in cities or have fancy technology like we do today. They were hunter-gatherers, which means they hunted animals and gathered food from nature to survive.


Indus valley civilization- example of proto history - Teachoo.png

  • The Proto-historic period is the time for which we have written records.
  • However, they are few and still cannot be read.
  • Archaeological sources are the main sources of information from this period.
  •  During the protohistoric period, some societies began to develop new technologies like metalworking , which allowed them to make tools and weapons that were stronger and more durable than before.
  • The protohistoric period is also characterized by the movement of people and ideas , as different groups interacted with each other through trade, migration, and warfare. This led to the d evelopment of new cultures and the mixing of old ones.
  • Example- Indus Valley civilization.


  • The time period after the invention of writing i s known as history.
  • Written records have been found in this period.
  • Early writing was done on rock pillars, copper plates, clay tablets, palm leaves, and on the bark of birch trees.
  • Over the years many of these pieces of evidence have been destroyed.
  • The ones that remain however are rich a source of information.
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Davneet Singh

Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 14 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.