Sound can be produced by the following methods
(i) by vibrating of strings
We can produce sounds by the vibrations of stretched strings.
Like in a guitar, the metal strings are fixed tightly between two points.
When the stretched strings are plucked or bowed, the strings start vibrating and produce sound.
Example- Sitar, Veena, Violin, Tanpura, Santoor, Guitar, Piano and Ektara
(ii) by vibrating air columns
Some musical instruments produce musical sounds by the vibrations of air columns inside them.
When we blow air in them, the column of air enclosed in a wooden/metal tube vibrates and produces sound.
Example - Shehnai, Flute, Trumpet.
(iii) by vibrating membranes
Some musical instruments produce sound by the vibrations of thin stretched membranes.
Like in a drum, a thin membrane is fixed tightly over it.
When we strike the stretched membrane, it vibrates and produces sound.
Example - Mridangam, Tabla, Dholak, Drum and Dhapli
(iv) by vibrating plates
Some musical instruments make sound due to vibrations of thick plates.
When we bang plates, it vibrates and produces sounds
Example - cymbals (manjira), noot (matka), kartal, Jal-tarang