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Units   Marks Pd
I India and the Contemporary World - II 20 60
II Contemporary India - II 20 55
III Democratic Politics II 20 50
IV Understanding Economic Development 20 50
V Total 80 215

Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World-II



In Sub-unit 1.1 students are required to choose any two themes. In that sub-unit, theme 3 is compulsory and for second theme students are required to choose any one from the first two themes.

In Sub-units 1.2 and 1.3 students are required to choose any one theme from each. Thus all students are required to study four themes in all.

Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes: Any two of the following themes:

1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe:

(a) The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. (b) The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc. (c) General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece. (Chapter 1)

2. The Nationalist Movement in Indo

- China: Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China

(a)French colonialism in Indo-China. (b) Phases of struggle against the French.

(c) The ideas of Phan Chu  Trinh,  Phan Boi Chau, HO Chi Minh (d) The Second World War and the liberation struggle. (e) America and the Vietnam war.

(Chapter 2)


  1. Nationalism in India:

(a) Impact of First world war, Khilafat, Non- Cooperation and Differing Strands within the Movement. (b) Salt Satyagraha. (c) Movements of peasants, workers, tribals.

(d) Limits of Civil Disobedience.   (e) The

Sense of Collective Belonging. (Chapter 3)


Sub-unit 1.2: Livelihoods, Economies and Societies:

Any one of the following themes:

  1. The making of a Global World:

(a) The Pre-modern world (b) The Nineteenth Century global economy, colonialism) (c) The Inter war Economy (Great Depression) (d) Rebuilding the World Economy

  1. The Age of Industrialization :

(a) Proto-industrialization and pace of industrial change (b) Life of workers

(c) Industrialization in the colonies (d) Early Entrepreneurs & workers (e) The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth (f) Market for Goods

  1. Work, Life & Leisure :
  • Development of modern cities due to

Industrialization in London & Bombay

  • Housing and Land Reclamation (c) Social Changes in the cities (d) Cities and the challenge of the Environment

Sub-unit 1.3 : Everyday Life, Culture and Politics Any one of the following themes:

  1. Print Culture and the Modern World:

(a) The history of print in Europe. (b) The growth of press in nineteenth century India. (c) Relationship between print culture, public debate and politics. (Chapter 7)


  1. Novels, Society and History:

(a) Emergence of the novel as a genre in the west. (b) The relationship between the novel and changes in modern society. (c) Early novels in nineteenth century India.

(d) A study of two or three major writers.

(Chapter 8)

•                The theme will discuss the forms in which nationalism developed along with the formation of nation states in Europe in the post-1830 period.

•                Discuss the relationship/difference between European nationalism and anti-colonial nationalisms.

•              Point to the way the idea of the For- math required nati-on states be- came generalized in Europe and elsewhere.

•                Discuss the difference between Fre- nch colonialism in Indo-China and British colonialism in India.

•                Outline the different stages of the anti- imperialist struggle in Indo-Chi- na.

•              Familiarize the students with the dif- ferences between nationalist move- ments in Indo China and India.

•                Discuss the characteristics of Indian nationalism through a case study of Civil Disobedience Movement.

•               Analyze the nature of the diverse so- cial movements of the time.



 Familiarize students with the writ- ings and ideals of different political groups and individuals, notably Ma- hatama Gandhi.







  • Show that globalizaton has a long history and point to the shifts within the
  • Analyze the implication of globaliza- tion for local
  • Discuss how globalization is experi- enced differently by different social groups.
  • Familiarize students with the Pro- to-Industrial phase and Early – facto- ry system.
  • To make them understand, about the process of industrialization and its impact on labour
  • To explain them about industrializa- tion in the colonies in reference to Textile
  • Show the difference between urban- ization in two different contexts. A focus on Bombay and London will al- low the discussions on urbanization and industrialization to complement each
  • Discuss the link between print culture

and the circulation of ideas.

Familiarize students with pictures, cartoons, extracts from propaganda literature and newspaper debates on important events and issues in the past.




Show that forms of writing have a
specific history, and that they reflect
historical changes within society and
shape the forces of change.

• Familiarize students with some of the
ideas of writers who have had a powerful impact on society.




Unit 2: Contemporary India - II



1. Resources and Development: Types

- natural and human; Need for resource planning, natural resources, land as a resource, soil types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures.

(Chapter 1)

3. Water Resources: Sources, distribution, utilisation, multi-purpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting. (One case study to be introduced)

(Chapter 3)

4.   Agriculture: Types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; contribution of Agriculture to national economy-employment and output.

Note : Content of pg no. 44-47 of NCERT Textbook is to be deleted.

(Chapter 4)


  1. Minerals and Energy Resources: Types of minerals, distribution (Note : on map only) use and economic importance of minerals, conservation, types of power resources: conventional and non- conventional, distribution and utilization, and

(Chapter 5)

  1. Manufacturing Industries:

Types, spatial distribution (Note : on map only) contribution of industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures  to control degradation. Note : Content mentioned on page no. 74-75 of NCERT, Geography Text book i.e. Aluminium Smelting, Chemical Industries, Fertilizer Industry, Cement Industry is not required to be deliver in class room during instruction.

7.Life Lines of National Economy : Importance of means of Communication and transportation, Trade & Tourism (Chapter 7)

•          Understand the value of resources and the need for their judicious util- isation and conservation.





•          Understand the importance of wa- ter as a resource as well as develop awareness towards its judicious use and conservation.



•          Understand the importance of agri- culture in national economy.

•          Identify various types of farming and discuss the various farming methods; Describe the spatial distribution of major crops as well as understand the relationship between rainfall re- gimes and cropping pattern.

•          Explain various government policies for institutional as well as techno- logical reforms since independence.


  • Discuss various types of minerals as well as their uneven nature of distri- bution and explain the need for their judicious
  • Discuss various types of conventional and non- conventional resources and their


  • Discuss the importance of industries in the national economy as well as understand the regional disparities which resulted due to concentration of industries in some
  • Discuss the need for a planned indus- trial development and debate over the role of government towards sus- tainable



  • To explain the importance of trans- port and communication in the ever shrinking
  • To understand the role of trade in the

economic development of a country.

Project / Activity:

  • Learners may collect photographs of typical rural houses, and clothing of people from different regions of India and examine whether they reflect any relationship with climatic conditions and relief of the
  • Learners may write a brief report on various irrigation practices in the village and the change in cropping pattern in the last decade.
  • Pollution of water in the
  • Depletion of forests and the greenhouse

Note: Any similar activity may be taken up.


Unit 3: Democratic Politics - II



1&2.Power Sharing & Federalism:

Why and how is power shared in democracies? How has federal division of power in India helped national unity? To what extent has decentralisation achieved this objective? How does democracy accommodate different social groups? (Chapter 1&2)

3&4.Democracy and Diversity & Gender, Religion and Caste:

Are divisions inherent to the working of democracy? What has been the effect of caste on politics and of politics on caste? How has the gender division shaped politics? How do communal divisions affect democracy?

(Chapter 3&4)


5.                 Popular Struggles and Movements (Note : Ch-5 is to be done as project work only and will not be evaluated in theory)

6.                      Political Parties: What role do political parties play in competition and contestation? Which are the major national and regional parties in India? (Chapter 6)

7.         Outcomes of Democracy:

Can or  should  democracy  be  judged  by its outcomes? What outcomes  can  one reasonably expect of democracies? Does democracy in India meet these expectations? Has democracy led to development, security and dignity for the people? What sustains democracy in India?

(Chapter 7)




  1. Challenges to Democracy:

Is the idea of democracy shrinking? What are the major challenges to democracy in India? How can democracy be reformed and deepened? What role can an ordinary citizen play in deepening democracy?

(Chapter 8)

•    Introduce students to the centrality of

power sharing in a democracy.

•    Understand the working of spatial and

social power sharing mechanisms.

•   Analyse federal provisions and institu- tions.

•    Understand the new Panchayati Raj in- stitutions in rural and urban areas.

•   Analyse the relationship between social cleavages and political competition with reference to Indian situation.

•    Understand and analyse the challenges posed by communalism to Indian democracy.

•    Understand the enabling and disabling

effects of caste and ethnicity in politics.

•    Develop a gender perspective on poli- tics.

•    Understand the vital role of struggle in

the expansion of democracy.


•   Analyse party systems in democracies.

•     Introduction to major political parties

in the country.


•     Analyse the role of social movements

and non- party political formations.

•    Introduction to the difficult question of evaluating the functioning of democra- cies.

•    Develop the skills of evaluating Indian democracy on some key dimensions : development, security and dignity for the people.


  • Understand the causes for continuation

of democracy in India.

  • Distinguish between sources of strength and weaknesses of Indian democracy.
  • Reflect on the different kinds of mea- sures possible to deepen Promote an active and participatory cit-izenship.


Unit 4: Understanding Economic Development



1. Development: The traditional notion of development; National Income and Per- capita Income. Growth of National Income

- critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development; Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development.




2. Sectors of the Indian Economy: *Sectors of Economic Activities; Historical change in sectors; Rising importance of tertiary sector; Employment Generation; Division of Sectors- Organised and Unorganised; Protective measures for unorganised sector workers. (Chapter 2)

3.  Money and Credit: Role of money in an economy: Formal and Informal financial institutions for Savings and Credit - General Introduction; Select one formal institution such as a nationalized commercial bank and a few informal institutions; Local money lenders, landlords, chit funds and private finance companies. (Chapter 3) (Note : Ch-3 will also be evaluated in theory)

  1. Globalisation and the Indian Economy: Production accross countries, Foreign trade and Interaction of Markets, what is Globalization? Factors, WTO, Impact, Fair Globalization (Chapter 4)

Consumer Rights: ***How consumer is exploited (one or two simple case studies) factors causing exploitation of consumers; Rise of consumer awareness; how a consumer should be in  a  market;  role of government in consumer protection. (Chapter 5)

•             Familiarisation of some macroeconomic


•             Sensitizing the child about the rationale for overall human  development  in our country, which include the rise of income, improvements in health and education rather than income.

•       It is necessary to raise question in minds of the children whether the increase in income alone is sufficient for a nation.

•             How and why people should be healthy

and provided with education.

•               To make aware of a major employment

generating sector.

•           Sensitise the learner of how and why governments invest in such an important sector.



•            Familiarize the concept of money as an economic concept.

•       Create awareness of the role of financial institutions from the point of view of day-to- day life.


  • Provide children with some idea about how a particular economic phenomenon is influencing their surroundings and day-to-day


  • Making the child aware of her rights and duties as a consumer;
  • Familiarizing the legal measures available to protect from being exploited in markets.

Suggested Activities / Instructions:

Theme 2*: Visit to banks and money lenders / pawnbrokers and discuss various activities that you have observed in banks in the classroom. Participate in the meetings of Self Help Groups, which are engaged in micro credit schemes in the locality of learners and observe issues discussed.

Theme 4**: Provide many examples of service sector activities. Use numerical examples, charts and photographs.

Theme 5***: Collect logos of standards available for various goods and services. Visit   a consumer court nearby and discuss in the class the proceedings; Collect stories of consumer exploitation and grievances from newspapers and consumer courts.


About the author
Sanjay Singhaniya