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No. Units Marks Periods
I India and the Contemporary World - I 20 60
II Contemporary India - I 20 55
III Democratic Politics - I 20 50
IV Economics 20 50
V Total 80 215

Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World - I



Three themes in the first sub-unit and one each from the second sub unit could be studied.

Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes:(All the three themes are compulsory)

In this unit the focus is on three events and processes that have in major ways shaped the identity of the modern world. Each represents a different form of politics, and a specific combination of forces. One event is linked to the growth of liberalism and democracy, one with socialism, and one with a negation of both democracy and socialism.

I. The French Revolution:

(a)  The Ancient Regime and its crises.

(b)        The social forces that led to the revolution. (c) The different revolutionary groups and ideas of the time. (d) The legacy. (Compulsory Chapter-1)

II. Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution:

(a)The crises of Tzarism. (b) The nature of social movements between 1905 and 1917.

(c) The First World War and foundation of Soviet state. (d) The legacy. (Chapter 2)

III. Nazism and the Rise of Hitler:

(a)The growth of social democracy (b) The crises in Germany. (b) The basis of Hitler’s rise to power. (c) The ideology of Nazism.

(d) The impact of Nazism.

(Chapter 3)

Sub-unit 1.2: Livelihoods, Economies and Societies:

The themes in this section will focus on how different social groups grapple with the changes in the contemporary world and how these changes affect their lives.

Any one theme of the following:

  1. Forest Society and Colonialism:

(a) Relationship between forests and livelihoods. (b) Changes in forest societies under colonialism.

Case studies : Focus on two forest movements one in colonial India (Bastar) and one in Indonesia. (Chapter 4)

  1. Pastoralists in the Modern World:

(a) Pastoralism as a way of life. (b) Different forms of pastoralism. (c) What happens to pastoralism under colonialism and modern states?

Case studies: Focus on two pastoral groups, one from Africa and one from India. (Chapter 5)

  1. Peasants and Farmers:
  • Histories of the emergence of different forms of farming and peasant
  • Changes within rural economies in the modern

Case studies: focus on contrasting forms of rural change and different forms of rural societies (expansion of large-scale wheat and cotton farming in USA, rural economy and the Agricultural Revolution in England, and small peasant production in colonial India) (Chapter 6)

Map Work Based on theme 4/5/6. (Internal

choice will be provided)

•          In each of the themes in this unit students would be made familiar with extracts of speeches, political declarations, as well as the politics of caricatures, posters and engravings. Students would learn how to interpret these kinds of historical evidences.

•          Familiarize students with the names of people involved, the different types of ideas that inspired the revolution, the wider forces that shaped it.

•         Show how written, oral and visual material can be used to recover the history of revolutions.

•          Explore the history of socialism through a study of the Russian revolution.


•          Familiarize students with the names of people involved, the different types of ideas that inspired the revolution.

•          Discuss the critical significance of Nazism in shaping the politics of modern world.

•          Familiarize students with the speeches and writings of Nazi leaders.


  • Discuss the social and cultural world of forest communities through the study of specific
  • Understand how oral traditions can

be used to explore tribal revolts.

  • Point to the varying patterns of developments within pastoral societies in different
  • Look at the impact of colonialism on forest societies, and the implication of scientific
  • Show the different processes through which agrarian transformation may occur in the modern
  • Consider what happens to pastoralists and pastoralism in the modern world, with the formation of modern states,

marking of boundaries, processes of sedentarization, contraction of

pastures, and expansion of markets.

  • Understand how agricultural systems in India are different from that in other

Familiarize students with the idea that large scale farming, small scale production, shifting agriculture operate on different principles and have different histories.












Unit 2 : Contemporary India - I



1.  India - Size and Location

2.    Physical Features of India: relief, structure, major physiographic unit.


3.  Drainage: Major rivers and tributaries, lakes and seas, role of rivers in the economy, pollution of rivers, measures to control river pollution. (Chapter 3)

4.      Climate: Factors influencing the climate; monsoon- its characteristics, rainfall and temperature distribution; seasons; climate and human life.

(Chapter 4)



5.    Natural Vegetation and Wild Life: Vegetation types, distribution as well as altitudinal variation, need for conservation and various measures. Major species, their distribution, need for conservation and various measures.

6.    Population: Size, distribution, age- sex composition, population change- migration as a determinant of population change, literacy, health, occupational structure and national population policy

: adolescents as under-served population group with special needs. (Chapter 6)

Note : Data of pg 53, 54 is to be updated by the teacher in the Text Book NCERT, Class IX Geography.

•                                To understand the major landform features and the underlying geolog- ical structure; their association with various rocks and minerals as well as nature of soil types.

•                       To understand the river systems of the country and explain the role of rivers in the evolution of human society.


•                                To identify the various factors in- flue-ncing the climate and explain the climatic variation of our country and its impact on the life of the peo- ple.

•                               To explain the importance and unify- ing role of monsoons.

•                       To find out the nature of diverse flora and fauna as well as their distribu- tion.

•                           To develop concern about the need to protect the biodiversity of our coun- try.

•                         To analyse the uneven nature of popu- lation distribution and show concern about the large size of our popula- tion;

•                       To understand the various occupations of people and explain various factors of population change;

•                                To explain various dimension of na- tional policy and understand the needs of adolescents as under served group.

Project/Activity: Learners may identify songs, dances, festivals and special food preparations associated with certain seasons in their particular region, and whether they have some commonality with other regions of India.

Collection of material by learners on the flora and fauna of the region in which their school is situated. It should include a list of endangered species of the region and also information regarding efforts being made to save them.


River pollution

Depletion of forests and ecological imbalance.

Unit 3: Democratic Politics – I



2.  What is Democracy? Why Democracy?:

What are the different ways of defining democracy? Why has democracy become the most prevalent form of government in our times? What are the alternatives  to democracy?  Is  democracy  superior  to its available alternatives? Must every democracy have the same institutions and values? (Chapter 2)




3.  Constitutional Design:

How and why did India become a democracy?

How was the Indian constitution framed? What are the salient features of the Constitution? How is democracy being constantly designed and redesigned in India? (Chapter 3)

4.  Electoral Politics:

Why and how do we elect representatives? Why do we have a system of competition among political parties? How has the citizens’ participation in electoral politics changed? What are the ways to ensure free and fair elections? (Chapter 4)


  1. Working of Institutions:

How is the country governed? What does Parliament do in our democracy? What is the role of the President of India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers? How do these relate to one another? (Chapter 5)

  1. Democratic Rights :

Why do we need rights in a constitution? What are the Fundamental Rights enjoyed by the citizen under the Indian constitution? How does the judiciary protect the Fundamental Rights of the citizen? How is the independence of the judiciary ensured? (Chapter 6)

•                Develop conceptual skills of defining


•                Understand how different historical processes and forces have promoted democracy.

•                Developing a sophisticated defence of democracy against common prej- udices

•                Develop a historical sense of the choice and nature of democracy in India.

•              Introduction to the process of Consti- tution making

•                Develop respect for the Constitution and appreciation for Constitutional values

•              Recognise that constitution is a living

document that undergoes changes.

•                Introduce the idea of representative democracy via competitive party politics

•               Familiarise with our electoral system

and reasons for choosing this

•                Develop an appreciation of citizen’s increased participation in electoral politics

•              Recognise the significane of the Elec- tion Commission



  • Provide an overview of central gov- ernmental structures
  • Sensitise to the key role of the Par- liament and its procedures







  • Distinguish between nominal and real

executive authorities and functions

Understand the parliamentary system of executive’s accountability to the legislature



Unit 4: Economics



1.                    The Story of Village Palampur: Economic transactions  of  Palampore  and its interaction with the rest of the world through which the concept of production (including three factors of production (land, labour and capital) can be introduced. (Chapter 1)

2.             People as Resource: Introduction of how people become resource / asset; economic activities done by men and women; unpaid work done by women; quality of human resource; role of health and education; unemployment as a form of non utilisation of human resource; sociopolitical implication in simple form. (Chapter 2)

3.            Poverty as a Challenge: Who is poor (through two case studies: one rural, one urban); indicators; absolute poverty (not as a concept but through a few simple examples)-why people are poor ; unequal distribution of resources; comparison between countries; steps taken by government for poverty alleviation.

(Chapter 3)

4.                Food Security in India: Source of Foodgrains, variety across the nation, famines in the past, the need for self sufficiency, role of government in food security, procurement of foodgrains, overflowing of granaries and people without food, public distribution system, role of cooperatives in food security (foodgrains, milk and vegetables ration shops, cooperative shops, two-three examples as case studies) (Chapter 4)

Note : Current status of PDS mentioned in NCERT class IX Economics to be deleted. (pg no. 49-51)

•          Familiarising the children with some basic economic concepts through an imaginary story of a village.




•          Familiarisation of a few population related concepts and sensitization of child that people as asset can partic- ipate and contribute in nation build- ing.





•          Understanding of poverty as a chal- lenge and sensitization of the learner

•          Appreciation of the government ini- tiative to alleviate poverty;





•          Exposing the child to an economic is- sue which is basic necessities of life;

•          Appreciate and critically look at the role of government in ensuring food supply.

Suggested Activities / Instructions:

Theme I: Give more examples of activities done by different workers and farmers. Numerical problems can also be included. Some of the ways through which description of villages are available in the writings of Prem Chand, MN Srinivas and RK Narayan. They may have to be referred.

Theme II: Discuss the impact of unemployment. Debate on whether all the activities done by women should be included or not. Is it necessary to reduce population growth or family size? Discuss.

Theme IV: Visit a few farms in a village and collect the details of foodgrains cultivated. Visit a nearby ration shop and collect the details of goods available. Visit a regulated market yard and observe how goods are transacted and get the details of the places where the goods come and go.


About the author
Sanjay Singhaniya