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Unit No. Unit Marks
I Matter - Its Nature and Behaviour 23
II Organisation in the Living World 20
III Motion, Force and Work 2 27
IV Our Environment 6
V Food; Food Production  4
  Total 80
  Internal assessment 20
  Grand Total 100

Note : Above weightage includes the weightage of questions based on practical skills.

Theme : Materials

Unit I : Matter-Nature and Behaviour 

Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.

Nature of matter : Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.
Particle nature, basic units : Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.
Structure of atoms : Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.

Theme : The World of the Living

Unit II : Organization in the Living World

Call - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism : Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanenttissues in plants).
Biological Diversity : Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Nonchordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).
Health and Diseases : Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases,their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.

Theme : Moving Things, People and Ideas


Unit III : Motion, Force and Work 

Motion : Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a staight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for
uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.

Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and
Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.

Gravitation : Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.

Floatation : Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary Idea of Relative Density.

Work, energy and power : Work done by a Force, Energy, Power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.

Sound : Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR.
Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only).


Theme : Natural Resources : Balance in Nature

Unit IV : Our Environment

Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, Water and Soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.

Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature : Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen


Theme : Food

Unit V : Food Production
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.


Praticals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.

  1. Finding the pH of the following samples by using pH paper / universal indicator:
    1. Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
    2. Dilute NaOH solution
    3. Dilute Ethanoic Acid Solution
    4. Lemon juice
    5. Water
    6. Dilute Hydrogen Carbonate solution
      Studying the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) by their reaction with:
      a) Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
      b) Zinc metal
      c) Solid sodium carbonate
  2. Performing and observing the following reactions and classifying them into :
    a) Combination reaction
    b) Decomposition reaction
    c) Displacement reaction
    d) Double displacement reaction
    1. Action of water on quick lime
    2. Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
    3. Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
    4. Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions
  3. Observing the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions :
    1. Z n SO 4 (aq)
    2. F e SO 4 (aq)
    3. C u SO 4 (aq)
    4.  Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq)
      Arranging Zn, Fe, Cu and Al (metals) in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.
  4. Studying the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it and determine its resistance. Also plotting a graph between V and I.
  5. Determination of the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series and parallel.
  6. Preparing a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
  7. Experimentally show that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.
  8. Study of the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) :
    1. odour
    2. solubility in water
    3. effect on litmus
    4. reaction with sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
  9. Study of the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.
  10. Determination of the focal length of :
    1. Concave mirror
    2. Convex lens
      by obtaining the image of a distant object.
  11. Tracing the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
  12. Studying (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.
  13. Tracing the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.
  14. Finding the image distance for varying object distances in case of a convex lens and drawing corresponding ray diagrams to show the nature of image formed.
  15. Identification of the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean).
    Prescribed Book
    ● Science - Textbook for class X - NCERT Publication
    ● Assessment of Practical Skills in Science - Class IX - CBSE Publication
    ● Assessment of Practical Skills in Science - Class X - CBSE Publication
    ● Laboratory Manual - Science - Class IX, NCERT Publication
    ● Laboratory Manual - Science - Class X, NCERT Publication
    ● Exemplar Problems - Clss IX - NCERT Publication
    ● Exemplar Problems Class X - NCERT Publication

About the author
Sanjay Singhaniya