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CLASS XII (2017-18)

(THEORY)       

                                                                                       Total Periods (Theory 160 + Practical 60)

Time: 3 Hours                                                                                                                   70 Marks

Unit No. Title No. of Periods Marks
Unit I  Solid State           10

    

23   

Unit II Solutions          10
Unit III Electrochemistry          12
Unit IV Chemical Kinetics           10
Unit V Surface Chemistry           08
Unit VI General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements           08      19 
Unit VII p -Block Elements           12
Unit VIII d -and f -Block Elements           12
Unit IX Coordination Compounds           12
Unit X Haloalkanes and Haloarenes           10

    

 

 

 

 

28   

Unit XI Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers           10
Unit XII Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids           10
Unit XIII Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen           10
Unit XIV Biomolecules          12
Unit XV Polymers          08
Unit XVI Chemistry in Everyday Life           06
  Total         160      70

 

Unit I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.


Unit II: Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant,integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Unit VII: "p"-Block Elements

Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen(Structure only) ; Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and Properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: Preparation Properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

 

Unit VIII: "d" and "f" Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, 
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

 

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation. Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only). Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in text.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.

Proteins -Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.

Vitamins - Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

 

Unit XV: Polymers

Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life

Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

 

PRACTICALS 

Evaluation Scheme for Examination Marks 
Volumetric Analysis     08
Salt Analysis     08
Content Based Experiment      06
Project Work     04
Class record and viva      04
                     Total     30

 

PRACTICALS SYLLABUS

Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments.

Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.

A. Surface Chemistry

(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol

Lyophilic sol - starch, egg albumin and gum

Lyophobic sol - aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.

(b) Dialysis of sol-prepared in   (a) above.

(c) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils.

 

B. Chemical Kinetics

(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.

(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following: 
(i) Reaction of Iodide ion with Hydrogen Peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of Iodide ions.

(ii) Reaction between Potassium Iodate, (KIO3) and Sodium Sulphite: (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).

C. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments

i) Enthalpy of dissolution of Copper Sulphate or Potassium Nitrate.

ii) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).

iii) Determination of enthaply change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between Acetone and Chloroform.

D. Electrochemistry

Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+|| Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature.

E. Chromatography

i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.

ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).

F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds

i) Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum.

ii) Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.

G. Preparation of Organic Compounds Preparation of any one of the following compounds

i) Acetanilide

ii) Di -benzal Acetone

iii) p-Nitroacetanilide

iv) Aniline yellow or 2 - Naphthol Aniline dye.

 

H. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:

Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.

I. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs.

J. Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:

i) Oxalic acid,

ii) Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate

(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).

 

K. Qualitative analysis

Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.

Cation - Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Aℓ3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, 4 NH

Anions - 2- 2- 2- - - - - 3- 2- 3 4 2 4 2 4 4 , S , SO , SO , NO , C , Br , I , PO , C O , CH COO 23CO (Note: Insoluble salts excluded)


PROJECT

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. A few suggested Projects. 

  • Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. 
  • Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. 
  • Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc. 
  • Study of the effect of Potassium Bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time, etc.) 
  • Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it. 
  • Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice, etc. 
  • Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom). 
  • Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric power, chilli powder and pepper.

Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.

 

Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XI and XII

Evaluation Scheme

Time Allowed: Two hours                                                                                             Max. Marks: 30

 

   
Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus  5 marks
Written test (based on given/prescribed practicals) 10 marks
Practical Record  5 marks
Viva 10 marks
Total 30 marks

General Guidelines 

  • The practical examination will be of two hour duration.
  • A separate list of ten experiments is included here. 
  • The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other students. 
  • The written test will be of 30 minutes duration.
  • The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of 15 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 10 questions. 
  • A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination rules. 
  • All questions included in the question papers should be related to the listed practicals. Every question should require about two minutes to be answered. 
  • These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each subject. These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.
  • The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions etc. 
  • Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for assessment. 
  • The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory/principle/concept, apparatus/materials/ chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error etc.

A. Items for Identification/Familiarity of the apparatus for assessment in practicals(All experiments)

Beaker, glass rod, tripod stand, wire gauze, Bunsen burner, Whatman filter paper, gas jar, capillary tube, Pestle and mortar, Test tubes, tongs, test tube holder, test tube stand, burette, Pipette, conical flask, standard flask, clamp stand, Tripod stand, burner, wire gauze, funnel, filter paper

Hands-on Assessment 

  • Identification/familiarity with the apparatus 
  • Odour detection in qualitative analysis 


B. List of Practicals

The experiments have been divided into two sections: Section A and Section B. The experiments mentioned in Section B are mandatory.

 

SECTION- A


A Surface Chemistry

(1) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol

Lyophilic sol - starch, egg albumin and gum

(2) Preparation of one lyophobic sol

Lyophobic sol - Ferric hydroxide

B Chromatography

(1) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values (distance values may be provided).

C Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:

(1) Alcoholic and Carboxylic groups.

(2) Aldehydic and Ketonic

D Characteristic tests of carbohydrates and proteins in the given food stuffs.

E Preparation of Inorganic Compounds- Potash Alum

 

SECTION-B (Mandatory)


F      Quantitative analysis

(1) (a) Preparation of the standard solution of Oxalic acid of a given volume

(b) Determination of molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of Oxalic acid.

 

(2) The above exercise [F 1 (a) and (b)] to be conducted using Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Mohr's salt)

G       Qualitative analysis:

(1) Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cation –NH4+

Anions – CO32-, S2-, SO32-, Cl-, CH3COO-

(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations. 

 

Type of Question

Mark per Question  Total No. of Questions  Total Marks 
VSA 1 5 05
SA-I  2 5 10
SA-II  3 12 36
VBQ 4 1 04
LA 5 3 15
Total   26 70

1. Internal Choice: There is no overall choice in the paper. However, there is an internal choice in one question of 2 marks weightage, one question of 3 marks weightage and all the three questions of 5 marks weightage.
2. The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating similar templates keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of questions same.


About the author
Ritu Sagar