GEOGRAPHY (Code No. 029)

Class XII (2017-18)


One Theory Paper                                                                                                       3 Hours

                                                                                                                                      70 Marks



A Fundamentals of Human Geography   35 Marks 
  Unit 1: Human Geography       30  
  Unit 2: People 
  Unit 3: Human Activities
  Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade 
  Unit 5: Human settlements 
  Map Work      05
B India: People and Economy   35 Marks 
  Unit 6: People       30
  Unit 7: Human Settlements 
  Unit 8: Resources and Development 
  Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade 
  Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems 
  Map Work        05
C Practical Work  30 Marks 
  Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping      15
  Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology       10
  Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce      05

Part-A. Fundamentals of Human Geography                                   90 Periods            35 Marks

Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope

Unit 2: People

  • Population-distribution, density and growth 
  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change; 
  • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition; 
  • Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities  

  • Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries.
  • Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries.  .
  • Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries. 
  • Quatenary activities-concept; people engaged in quatenary activities - case study from selected countries.

Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade 

  • Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways. 
  • Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes. 
  • Air transport- Intercontinental air routes. 
  • Oil and gas pipelines. 
  • Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS. 
  • International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade. 
  • Ocean: National rights and international treaties.

Unit 5: Human Settlements

  • Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of World.


Part B. India: People and Economy 

Unit 6: People

  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population. 
  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences. 
  • Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns. 
  • Population, environment and development.  


Unit 7: Human Settlements

  • Rural settlements - types and distribution. 
  • Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.


Unit 8: Resources and Development

  • Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
  • Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management. 
  • Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation. 
  • Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters. 
  • Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).


Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade 

  • Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks. 
  • International trade- changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.


Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal. 
  • Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums. 
  • Land degradation.

Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India.                    05 Marks


Part-C Practical Work

Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping

  • Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources. 
  • Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency, deviation and rank correlation. 
  • Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleth maps. 
  • Data analysis and generation of diagrams, graphs and other visual diagrams using computers.

Unit 2: Field Study or Spatial Information Technology

Field visit and study: map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch; survey on any one of the local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, impact of floods and drought, catchment area of school, Market survey and Household survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be tabulated and analysed with diagrams and maps). Students can be given different topics to get more insight into various problems of society.


Spatial Information Technology

Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.


I. Weightage to content (Chapter nos. of NCERT textbooks are given against unit within brackets)

Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography (Textbook I)                                                     35 marks



A Fundamentals of Human Geography   35 Marks 
  Unit 1: Human Geography                                                                               (Ch.1)




  Unit 2: People                                                                                          (Ch. 2 to 4) 
  Unit 3: Human Activities                                                                         (Ch. 5 to 7) 
  Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade                                   (Ch. 8 and 9) 
  Unit 5: Human Settlements                                                                         (Ch. 10) 
  Map Work-----World map (for identification only relating to Units 1 to 5)         05 
  Total         35


II. Weightage to content (Chapter nos. of NCERT textbooks are given against unit within brackets)

Part B: India, People and Economy (Textbook II)                                                                35 marks



B India: People and Economy  35 Marks 
  Unit 6: People                                                                                                  (Ch. 1 -3) 




  Unit 7: Human Settlements                                                                                (Ch. 4) 
  Unit 8: Resources and Development                                                             (Ch. 5-9) 
  Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade                  (Ch. 10-11) 
  Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems          (Ch.12) 
  Map Work          5
  Total       35
  Grand Total       70

Fundamentals of Human Geography

Textbook I (NCERT)

Revised Map Items for identification only on outline political map of the World.


Unit-1                                Ch.-1                                      Nil

Unit-2                          Ch. 2 to 4                           1 A large country in each continement in terms of area. 

                                                                              1 Areas having low and high density of population of each continent.

                                                                              2 Countries having low/high growth rate of population.

Unit-3                        Ch. 5 to 7                           1 Areas of subsistence gathering.

                                Primary Activities.                  2 Major areas of nomadic herding of the world.

                                                                             3 Major areas of commercial livestock rearing.

                                                                             4 Major areas of extensive commercial grain faming.

                                                                             5 Major areas of mixed farming of the World.

                                                                            6 Major areas of mediterreneam agricalture of the World.

                          Secondary Activities        1 Ruhr region, Silicon Valley, Appalachian region, Great lakes region.

Unit - 4                       Ch. 8 to 9                2 Transcontinental Railways: Terminal Stations of transcontinental railways

                                                                  3 Major Sea Ports :

                                                                     Europe: North Cape, London, Hamburg North America:

                                                                     Vancouver, San Francisco, New Orleans

                                                                     South America: Rio De Janeiro, Colon, Valparaiso

                                                                    Africa: Suez, Durban and Cape Town

                                                                   Asia: Yokohama, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Aden,

                                                                   Colombo, Karachi, Kolkata

                                                                   Australia: Perth, Sydney, Melbourne and Auckland

                                                                4. Inland Waterways: Suez canal, Panama canal, Rhine

                                                                     waterway and St. Lawrence Seaway

                                                                5. Major Airports:

                                                                    Asia: Tokyo, Beijing, Irkutsk, Vladivostok, Mumbai, Jedda, Aden

                                                                    Europe: Moscow, London, Paris, Berlin and Rome

                                                                    North America: Chicago, New Orleans, Mexico City

                                                                    South America: Bogota, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Santiago

                                                                    Australia: Drarwin and Wellington.

Unit - 5             Ch. 10                                 Mega cities of the world


India - People and Economy

Textbook II (NCERT)

Revised Map for locating and labelling only on the outline political map of India

Units - 6 & 7                          Ch. 1 to 4                           • State with high level of urbanised and low level of urbanisation

                                                                                        • One state higher level of HDI & One lower level of HDI

                                                                                        • State with higher level of pop pressure on land & one state

                                                                                           lover level of pop pressure in land.

                                                                                        • One out migrating state

                                                                                        • One in migrating state

                                                                                         • One state with higher gender ratio & one with lower gender ratio

                                                                                         • Any city with more than 10 million population.

Unit - 8                                  Ch.  5 to 9                          Leading producing states of the following crops:

                                                                                        (a) Rice, (b) Wheat, (c) Jowar, (d) Bajra,

                                                                                        (e) Maize, (f) Groundnut, (g) Cotton, (h) Jute,

                                                                                        (i) Sugarcane, (j) Tea, and (k) Coffee


                                                                                        Iron-ore mines: Mayurbhanj, Kendujhar, Durg, Bailadila, Ratnagiri, Bellary.

                                                                                        Manganese mines: Sundergarh, Balaghat, Nagpur, Shimoga.

                                                                                        Copper mines: Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, Khetari, Udaipur and Amarkantak.

                                                                                        Bauxite mines: Katni, Bilaspur and Koraput.

                                                                                        Coal mines: Jharia, Bokaro, Raniganj, Korba, Talcher, Singareni, Neyveli.

                                                                                        Oil Refineries: Bhatinda, Panipat, Mathura, Jamnager, Mangalore,

                                                                                       Tatipaka, Haldia, Guwahati, Baroni Industries.

  Iron and Steel Plants: Bhadravati, Bhilai, Bokaro.

  Durgapur, Rourkela and Jameshedpur.

  Cotton Textile: Ahmedabad, Surat, Gwalior, Varanasi, Murshidabad, Pune,

  Nagpur, Solapur and Mysore.

  Software Technology Parks: Gandhinager, Shrinager, Mohali, Shimla, Delhi,

  Noida, Kanpur, Indore, Hyderabad, Bhubaneshwar and Major Industrial Regions.


Unit - 9                       Ch. 10 - 11                      Transport:

(i) Important tower on north south corredor easthest corridor & golden quadrleteral.

(ii) Headquarters of all railway zones.

(iii) Major Sea Ports: Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Kochi, Ennore, Tuticorin,

   Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradwip, Haldia.

(iv) International Air ports: Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai,

    Kolkata, Guwahati, Delhi, Amritsar, Panaji, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram & Hyderabad


Unit - 10                       Ch. 12                                 NIL


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