CLASS XI (2017-18)


One Theory Paper                                                                                                  70 Marks

                                                                                                                                  3 Hours


Part A Fundamentals of Physical Geography  35 Marks
  Unit-1: Geography as a discipline   30     
  Unit-2: The Earth 
  Unit-3: Landforms 
  Unit-4: Climate   
  Unit-5: Water (Oceans) 
  Unit-6: Life on the Earth 
  Map and diagram  05
Part B  India-Physical Environment      35 Marks
  Unit-7: Introduction   35   
  Unit-8: Physiography 
  Unit-9: Climate, vegetation and soil 
  Unit-10: Natural hazards and Disasters 
  Map and Diagram   05
Part C  Practical Work  30 Marks 
  Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps  10 Marks 
  Unit-2: Topographic and Weather Maps  15 Marks 
  Practical Record Book and Viva 5 Marks 

Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography 

Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline

  • Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes. 
  • Branches of Geography; Physical Geography and Human Geography. 
  • Scope and Career Options

Unit-2: The Earth

  • Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth. 
  • Wegener's continental drift theory and plate tectonics. 
  • Earthquakes and volcanoes: causes, types and effects.

Unit-3: Landforms

  • Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics.
  • Geomorphic processes: weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation. 
  • Landforms and their evolution.

Unit 4: Climate 

  • Atmosphere- composition and structure; elements of weather and climate. 
  • Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature- factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature. 
  • Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones. 
  • Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution. 
  • World climates-classification Koeppen, Differences in parameter between koeppen & Thornthwaite, Global warming and climatic changes. 
  • Climate and Global Concerns.

Unit 5: Water (Oceans)

  • Basics of Oceanography 
  • Oceans - distribution of temperature and salinity. 
  • Movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs. 
  • Ocean resources and pollution.

Unit 6: Life on the Earth

  • Biosphere - importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.

Map work on identification of features based on 1 to 6 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of the world.


Part – B: India - Physical Environment

Unit-7: Introduction

  • Location, space relations, India's place in the world.

Unit-8: Physiography

  • Structure and Relief; Physiographic Divisions. 
  • Drainage systems: Concept of river basins, Watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.

Unit-9: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

  • Weather and climate - spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls: spatial and temporal; use of weather charts; Climatic types (Koeppen). 
  • Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves. 
  • Soils - major types (ICAR's classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.

Unit-10: Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management

  • Floods, Cloudbursts 
  • Droughts: types and impact 
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami  
  • Cyclones: features and impact 
  • Landslides 


Map Work of features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline/Political/Physical map of India.

Part – C: Practical Work

Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps

  • Geo spatial data, Concept of Geographical data matrix; Point, line, area data. 
  • Maps -types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols. 
  • Map projection- Latitude, longitude and time, typology, construction and properties of projection: Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator's projection. (only two projections) 


Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps

  • Study of topographic maps (1 : 50,000 or 1 : 25,000 Survey of India maps); contour cross section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements. 
  • Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Identification of physical and cultural features. 
  • Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital). 
  • Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge.

Practical Record Book and Viva Voce

Viva to be based on Practical Unit I and II only.


GEOGRAPHY (Code No. 029)

CLASS - XI (2017-18)

1. Theory - One Paper                                                                                                   Time: 3 hours

                                                                                                                                              Marks: 70


Part-I  Fundamentals of Physical Geography        35
  Unit-1: Geography as a discipline       30    
  Unit-2: The Earth 
  Unit -3: Landforms 
  Unit - 4: Climate 
  Unit - 5: Water (Oceans) 
  Unit - 6 : Life on the Earth 
  Map Work & Diagram        05
Part-II  India- Physical Environment        35
  Unit - 7 : Introduction       30  
  Unit - 8 : Physiography
  Unit – 9 : Climate, vegetation and soil 
  Unit -10 : Natural hazards and Disasters 
  Map Work & Diagram        05
  Total        70
Value Based Question from any unit 1-6 (Part- I), 7-10 (Part-II) - 3 Marks   Note: - One Value Based Question can be taken from any unit 1-6 (Part -I), 7-10 (Part-II). Accordingly the weightage of the lessons can be reduced as per the discretion of the teacher.
Part -III  Practical Work          30
  Unit -1 : Fundamentals of Maps          10
  Unit - 2 : Topographic and Weather Maps          15
  Practical Record Book and Viva         05

 2. Weightage to Difficulty Level 


Estimated Difficulty Level  Percentage 
(i) Easy (E)  20%
(ii) Average (AV)  60%
(iii) Difficult (D)  20%


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Ritu Sagar